The teacher should assist or give hints as necessary. 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 In its core the Sun currently fuses about 600 million tons of hydrogen into helium every second, converting 4 million tons of matter into energy every second as a result. [ ] 601 560 395 424 326 603 565 834 516 556 500 333 606 333 606 750 18 0 obj 668 668 668 668 668 668 1018 588 664 664 664 664 342 342 342 342 1000 269 269 459 459 545 636 1000 636 977 521 454 981 1000 525 615 ���8����+�;���{�O�riZ����^�mL�r�@W1}@�� dW����� ��d`�ƀ=s�7�Q��x�T���v��N�E$��1���=�;ß������-���Cڅ�V������A8|�&�T��?��|e� _�� ���_���T�'� a�?���f�^�S���q��Bm*�K�jP��c���Q��Rq��n�T_�����Xio��ӛ5� !I��ؑ��mƿ:��9� m�|���. 02/28/17 - Secrets of the Sun video worksheet 03/01/17 - Visit SpaceWeatherLive.com, write down 5 interesting facts in your science notebook 03/02/17 - Group modeling activity 03/06/17 - Nuclear Fusion notes, part 1 03/06/17 - Nuclear Fusion notes, part 2 03/06/17 - Nuclear Fusion powerpoint notes Give each student an index card with an element written on it. Wh… stream 342 402 711 711 711 711 543 711 711 964 598 850 867 480 964 711 How to play: Combine, swap, and complete reactions for points! endobj Nuclear Fusion in Stars [Activity] Child, Teen, Adult This simple and engaging activity explains nuclear fusion and how radiation is generated by stars, using marshmallows as a delicious model. Nuclear fusion happens when one atom is combined with another atom. /BitsPerComponent 8 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 << The proton-proton chain is how our … Numerous international experiments (JET in England, JT60 in Japan and TORE SUPRA in France, among others) have approached the ideal theoretical temperature, density, and reaction time required for nuclear fusion, and have observed highly encouraging results. 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 250 250 606 606 606 444 Today’s nuclear power plants use not fusion but nuclear fission: the splitting apart of heavy nuclei. 12 0 obj Like all reactors, fuel is consumed (in this case, hydrogen), and these reactions will not occur forever. This bright ball of fire is made up of 74% hydrogen and 24% helium. 500 750 278 500 500 1000 500 500 333 1144 525 331 998 750 667 750 The specific type of fusion that occurs inside of the Sun is known as How nuclear fusion works in the sun through gravity, high temperatures and quantum tunneling. Such experiments, however, bring with them immense technical requirements; such as the effective extraction of energy or the maintaining of temperatures in the millions of degrees C (most substances on Earth can only exist up to 3,000 degrees). 775 748 787 787 787 787 787 818 787 732 732 732 732 615 605 620 (�� In this game you'll combine protons and neutrons to create this type of nuclear fusion. %���� Make some helium, create some energy, and keep the Sun shining bright! 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 250 250 606 606 606 500 733 850 782 710 682 812 764 1128 764 737 692 543 689 543 867 711 >> To say: The Sun. Even so, there have been examples of nuclear fission in natural reactors. The infinite source of energy and center of our solar system, the Sun is a gigantic sphere that can fit over a million Earths inside it. 778 778 778 778 778 778 778 606 778 778 778 778 778 667 611 500 [ endobj Which of the following statements about this cycle is TRUE: The number of sunspots gets larger and smaller over the course of 11 years. %&'()*456789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 400 549 310 310 333 576 628 333 333 310 333 500 787 787 787 444 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 Why the interest? Fusion reactions occur in stars where two hydrogen nuclei fuse together under high temperatures and … 250 278 500 500 606 500 606 500 333 747 333 500 606 333 747 500 587 867 598 598 711 721 711 361 711 598 598 850 1182 1182 1182 617 333 500 553 444 611 479 333 556 582 291 234 556 291 883 582 546 333 556 537 444 556 444 333 500 556 333 333 556 333 833 556 556 636 636 636 636 636 636 636 636 636 636 454 454 818 818 818 545 Well, hydrogen, helium and carbon are elements that are very abundant on our planet, and thus an ability to harness nuclear fusion could open the door on a virtually inexhaustible energy supply. For more than fifty years, intensive research has been carried out on the question of controlled fusion. On Earth, nuclear fusion was first achieved in the creation of the hydrogen bomb. Life on Earth would not be possible without the nuclear fusion reactions that power our Sun. [ 711 1000 332 711 587 1049 711 711 711 1777 710 543 1135 1000 692 1000 This reaction results in the fusion of the two initial nuclei into one intermediate heavier nucleus which then decay into two other light nuclei, both different from the original pair. >> Nuclear fusion is when two small, light nuclei join together to make one heavy nucleus. /Creator (easyPDF Printer Driver 4.2) /Name /Im20 250 333 500 500 606 667 606 500 333 747 333 500 606 333 747 500 Their goal is to form the reactions that create helium, carbon, magnesium, oxygen, sulphur, neon, nickel, cobalt, and 4 different isotopes of iron. The Sun gets its energy from nuclear fusion. Physicists were very quickly able to conduct nuclear fusion experiments of their own; first involving smaller amounts of energy in laboratories, before moving on to more impressive scales. 250 333 500 606 500 889 833 250 333 333 444 606 250 389 250 315 Because of this, the hydrogen atoms inside the sun sometimes get so hot that they combine, or fuse, together. The groundbreaking infrastructure aims at providing clean energy for the country. 556 537 389 444 389 556 556 833 500 556 500 333 606 333 606 750 Nuclear Fusion & Solar Activity . Stars burning hydrogen in a fusion way. 250 333 500 500 606 500 606 556 333 747 333 500 606 389 747 500 << Detailed Activity Description Nuclear Fusion Leader’s Role Participants’ Role (Anticipated) Objective: Allow visitors to have an introduction to nuclear fusion and the energy it releases. 623 623 427 521 394 633 592 818 592 592 525 635 454 635 818 1000 684 684 684 684 684 684 984 698 632 632 632 632 421 421 421 421 endobj 400 549 361 361 333 576 556 333 333 361 333 500 889 889 889 444 << 3 0 obj 774 831 786 786 786 786 786 606 833 778 778 778 778 667 604 556 In cases where the interacting nuclei belong to elements with low atomic numbers (e.g., hydrogen [atomic number 1] or its isotopes deuterium and tritium), substantial amounts of energy are released. This energy, which can take between 10,000 and 170,000 years to escape the core, is the source of the Sun's light and heat. 833 722 667 685 778 611 556 778 778 389 389 722 611 944 778 833 This process enabled nuclear fusion to release energy, and it's this very process that powers the overwhelming majority of stars in the Universe, including our own Sun. In 1938, Hans Bethe put an end to centuries of speculation when he demonstrated that the Sun’s energy is drawn from a cycle of fusion reactions involving light nuclei such as hydrogen, helium, lithium and carbon. 667 833 722 556 611 778 667 1000 722 611 667 333 606 333 606 500 When this happens, some of the energy that held together the hydrogen atoms is released as heat and light. �� � } !1AQa"q2���#B��R��$3br� It does so because students are learning about nuclear fission and fusion reactions. In the Sun, the crushing gravitational forces of the Sun create the right conditions for sustained fusion. 603 787 695 684 616 732 684 989 685 615 685 454 454 454 818 636 8 0 obj 636 1000 269 636 459 818 636 636 636 1521 684 454 1070 1000 685 1000 When the Sun makes helium, it also releases energy. Nuclear fusion happens when the nucleuses (or nuclei) of two atoms collide to create a tremendous amount of energy. Most nuclear fusion happens in stars, such as our sun. 776 776 776 776 776 776 1094 724 683 683 683 683 546 546 546 546 /Length 20519 The Sun is fusing hydrogen into uranium and releasing energy. The sun is about halfway through its current stage. 747 778 611 709 774 611 556 763 832 337 333 726 611 946 831 786 444 444 444 444 444 444 638 407 389 389 389 389 278 278 278 278 Energy on the Sun is generated via nuclear fusion. At such high temperatures, very little nuclear ‘fuel’ is required in the fusion reactions, thus our Sun’s mass will allow it to keep on shining for a few billion years. When four hydrogen atoms fuse together they turn into a helium atom. The figure below shows a fusion reaction between the nuclei of deuterium (an isotope of hydrogen with one neutron) and tritium (an isotope of hydrogen containing two neutrons), considered to be the most promising reactions when considering the amount of energy produced. /Next 15 0 R 342 402 587 867 711 1272 862 332 543 543 711 867 361 480 361 689 What we refer to as nuclear fusion is a reaction that temporarily binds together two lighter nuclei, where by ‘lighter’ we mean that the combined number of neutrons and protons in both nuclei is far below 60. The Sun, as it burns through its fuel, gains its energy by fusing hydrogen, in a chain reaction, into helium. 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 549 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 500 500 500 500 500 500 758 444 479 479 479 479 287 287 287 287 Most of the sun’s energy is produced during nuclear fusion, in which the union of atomic nuclei from two lighter atoms (hydrogen) unites to form a new heavier atom with smaller mass (helium). nuclear fusion in its core.It is thought that almost all stars form by this process. Nuclear fusion, the source of all the energy so generously radiated by the Sun, does two things: it converts hydrogen into helium (or rather, makes helium nuclei from protons) and it converts mass to energy. /Filter /DCTDecode In nature, fusion occurs in stars, such as the sun. This Heat Energy rises to the surface because of convection (think density) As hot material reaches the surface of the sun gasses boil and erupt on surface. 10 0 obj 830 847 850 850 850 850 850 867 850 812 812 812 812 737 735 713 /Parent 1 0 R (VCG/VCG via Getty Images) A doughnut-shaped object in a building in China has blazed into life – and it will reach temperatures hotter than the sun . 14 0 obj i����W�f��� �� W�?�w�i?.�S�xr�GԴ��@��?,H�� 750 278 278 500 500 606 500 1000 333 979 424 331 827 750 500 667 352 394 636 636 636 636 454 636 636 1000 545 645 818 454 1000 636 The process smashes together smaller nuclei of certain elements to … �.�(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��(��F���9?��#��#�����@c�_�p� �0� ��� s�?nH��ā���ހ>Ǣ��I�T��ڢi��^�R� ��1�( ������j uh� Q�2( ��2( ��( ��2( ���( ��2=h ���@3@f�� (�� (���E�� 964 776 762 724 830 683 650 811 837 546 555 771 637 948 847 850 Fusion is what makes the Sun burn so hot for so long. 1000 684 686 698 771 632 575 775 751 421 455 693 557 843 748 787 Nuclear fusion, process by which nuclear reactions between light elements form heavier elements (up to iron). China powered up on Friday its largest "artificial sun," a nuclear fusion reactor designed to replicate the Sun's energy activity by using hydrogen and deuterium gases as fuels. ] /Width 412 /Producer (BCL easyPDF 4.20 \(0405\)) ] 699 699 497 593 456 712 650 979 669 651 597 711 543 711 867 1000 Nuclear Energy Inquiry (45 minutes) 1. Fusion has also been used in different experimental devices, often with the hope of producing energy in a controlled fashion.On the other hand, fission is a nuclear process that does not normally occur in nature, as it requires a large mass and an incident neutron. These problems have not yet been resolved, but highly advanced technical solutions are being developed in an attempt to overcome them. 542 818 542 542 636 642 636 364 636 542 545 645 1000 1000 1000 545 This lesson aligns with the Next Generation Science and Engineering Practice 2: Developing and Using Models: It does so because students are modeling what happens during nuclear fusion reactions through a hands on activity and a computer simulation. 250 333 500 606 500 889 778 333 333 333 389 606 250 333 250 296 250 278 371 606 500 840 778 208 333 333 389 606 250 333 250 606 A process in which two or more lighter atoms combine to create a heavy nucleus is called nuclear fusion. Learn Nuclear Science with Marbles A JINA/NSCL outreach service by Zach Constan Version 4.2 • January 2017 The following activities use the Introduction marble nuclei to model: • Fragmentation (the process by which labs like NSCL generate rare, radioactive isotopes) • Stellar nucleosynthesis (nucle-ar fusion in a star that con- 556 556 556 556 556 556 738 444 444 444 444 444 333 333 333 333 Nuclear fusion takes place naturally, such as in stars like the sun. The temperature inside our sun is very, very hot. 722 722 722 722 722 722 941 667 611 611 611 611 333 333 333 333 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 Nuclear Fusion in the core of the sun produces huge amounts of Energy. 352 394 459 818 636 1076 727 269 454 454 636 818 364 454 364 454 500 750 278 500 500 1000 500 500 333 1000 556 333 1028 750 667 750 %PDF-1.3 747 722 611 667 778 611 556 722 778 333 333 667 556 944 778 778 The first ‘non-controlled’ thermonuclear explosions on Bikini Island in 1949 raised interest in the possibility of conducting artificial ‘controlled’ fusion on Earth. 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 /A << /S /GoTo /D [7 0 R /XYZ null 541 null ] >> So much energy is released in these reactions that the Sun’s centre can reach temperatures of several million degrees Centigrade. The nuclear reaction in which a heavy nucleus is broken into smaller nuclei, by releasing neutrons and energy, is called nuclear fission. /Type /XObject 604 786 668 525 613 778 722 1000 667 667 667 333 606 333 606 500 US News: Nuclear fusion that could give us a cheap, endless source of energy might become a reality sooner than anyone expected, thanks to recent advances in We could box the sun … 601 601 601 601 601 601 955 521 596 596 596 596 274 274 274 274 711 711 711 711 711 711 711 711 711 711 402 402 867 867 867 617 �� � w !1AQaq"2�B���� #3R�br� 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 Have the students move about the classroom and construct fusion reactions. 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 endobj To Do: Display the Table of Elements side of the banner and/or pass out the Table of Elements handouts. The reaction is actually the fusion of hydrogen into helium, which takes place at the center of the Sun. 778 778 778 778 778 778 944 709 611 611 611 611 337 337 337 337 The nucleus made by fusion is heavier than either of the starting nuclei. That's why our sun is so hot and why it produces so much light. 333 444 463 407 500 389 278 500 500 278 278 444 278 778 556 444 >> $4�%�&'()*56789:CDEFGHIJSTUVWXYZcdefghijstuvwxyz�������������������������������������������������������������������������� ? 778 778 833 833 833 833 833 606 833 778 778 778 778 611 667 556 /Title "$"$�� C�� �" �� 722 722 722 722 722 722 944 685 611 611 611 611 389 389 389 389 The sun is a very dynamic (active) place. Notes. 16 0 obj 400 549 310 310 333 576 500 333 333 310 333 500 787 787 787 500 750 278 278 500 500 500 500 1000 333 1000 389 333 669 750 444 667 546 582 546 546 546 546 546 549 556 603 603 603 603 556 601 556 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 679 712 687 687 687 687 687 867 687 712 712 712 712 651 699 651 Sun Spots China's nuclear fusion device HL-2M tokamak, nicknamed the 'artificial sun', has achieved its first plasma discharge. This happens spontaneously for radioactive elements such as uranium, and it too releases energy. /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB Uploaded: October 2008. 1000 332 332 587 587 711 711 1000 711 964 593 543 1068 1000 597 737 444 556 444 444 444 444 444 549 444 556 556 556 556 500 500 500 500 750 250 500 500 1000 556 556 333 1000 556 333 944 750 667 750 612 633 607 607 607 607 607 818 607 633 633 633 633 592 623 592 If the "fuel" for nuclear fusion is nuclei of hydrogen, ... Astronomers have concluded that the Sun's activity varies in an 11-year cycle. 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 250 250 606 606 606 444 Tremendous amounts of energy are also released at the atomic scale, in the form of kinetic energy bestowed upon the two fusion products. endobj /Subtype /Image Introduce students to the premise of the activity: The (fictitious) town of Solutionville is trying to figure out a way to replace their current coal-fired power plants with cleaner and more sustainable energy sources. 611 778 667 556 611 778 722 944 722 667 667 333 606 333 606 500 Nuclear fusion is only possible when the repulsion between protons ( … Nuclear fusion is the process of making a single heavy nucleus (part of an atom) from two lighter nuclei.This process is called a nuclear reaction.It releases a large amount of energy.. 500 463 389 389 333 556 500 722 500 500 444 333 606 333 606 750 Ergo, nuclear fusion can only occur at a high temperature, at the central core of the Sun. endobj (���2(Ƞ�2(Ƞ�(� QE QE QE QE QE �~9������zW㜿�[�@��;g�z�ۦi���/ At a recent town meeting, it was proposed that the town build a nuclear power plant. 711 668 699 588 699 664 422 699 712 342 403 671 342 1058 712 687 /Height 264 ���� JFIF �� C ! [ [ endobj The word ''fusion'' means to combine. 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 750 Sun’s core is hottest due to its phenomenally high density (150 gm/cm 3 ), a result of its compression under self-gravity. In 1938, Hans Bethe put an end to centuries of speculation when he demonstrated that the Sun’s energy is drawn from a cycle of fusion reactions involving light nuclei such as hydrogen, helium, lithium and carbon. In fact, the Sun has a large nuclear fusion reaction that takes place at its center. ] 636 601 623 521 623 596 352 623 633 274 344 592 274 973 633 607 20 0 obj ] 750 278 278 500 500 606 500 1000 333 1000 444 333 778 750 500 611 The Sun. Is combined with another atom the town build a nuclear power plant such as our sun the nucleus by! Index card with an element written on it and complete reactions for points 's! And neutrons to create this type of nuclear fusion reaction that takes place at the center of the nuclei. 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